|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 138-139
Heart and vessels failure: A new pathologic description to consider in vascular disease
Andrés Felipe Vela-Montenegro1, Laura Yesenia Ardila-Acuña2, Adrian Camilo Ropero3, Ivan David Lozada-Martinez4
1 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia
2 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga, Bucaramanga, Colombia
3 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad De Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
4 Medical and Surgical Research Center, University of Cartagena; Colombian Chapter, Latin American Cardiology Network, Cartagena, Colombia
|Date of Submission||14-Aug-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||13-Sep-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||02-Mar-2022|
Dr. Ivan David Lozada-Martinez
Medical and Surgical Research Center, University of Cartagena, 130004, Cartagena
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Vela-Montenegro AF, Ardila-Acuña LY, Ropero AC, Lozada-Martinez ID. Heart and vessels failure: A new pathologic description to consider in vascular disease. APIK J Int Med 2022;10:138-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Vela-Montenegro AF, Ardila-Acuña LY, Ropero AC, Lozada-Martinez ID. Heart and vessels failure: A new pathologic description to consider in vascular disease. APIK J Int Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 26];10:138-9. Available from: https://www.ajim.in/text.asp?2022/10/2/138/338907
We read with great interest the article published by Desai et al., entitled “Arterial stiffness – A measurable vascular marker in clinical practice,” where the authors review the potential of arterial stiffness as a marker of cardiovascular risk, exploring the pathophysiological process of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, and its role in vascular failure. We thank the authors for providing such evidence. However, we would like to discuss the impact of a new pathologic description to be considered during the review of vascular disease, heart and vessels failure (HVF).
HVF is an emerging concept described by Galati et al., where the authors evaluated 228 patients with heart failure versus a control group, with the objective of determining the hemodynamic changes of the arteries depending on the left ventricular ejection fraction. This study found that all parameters of arterial kinetics (work, power, velocity, and acceleration) were significantly elevated in the control group (P < 0.001). In contrast, those who exhibited signs of heart failure had a substantial reduction in these parameters (P < 0.001). Interestingly, this same pattern was similarly present in both the common carotid artery and the posterior tibial artery (arteries studied). Finally, and what allowed the establishment of the new concept of HVF, was the finding that patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction had greater vascular compromise than those with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. That is, vascular disease does not always depend on heart failure and expresses different phenotypes, which can be identified through certain interventional procedures, therefore, the severity of vascular compromise depends on both heart failure and vascular remodeling itself, which can manifest itself through different and unspecific clinical pictures. Based on the above, the authors concluded that there is a double mechanical compensatory activity performed by the great arteries (active propulsion and concurrent hemodynamic suction), which partially compensates the cardiac failure, but allows the progression of vascular failure.
However, the pathophysiological process is more complex. Buendía-Palacios et al. stated that systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome (another emerging concept of cardiovascular disease) is a conditioning factor of HVF. The systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome has its pathophysiological basis in the hypothesis of resonance of blood pressure variability, which has a direct impact on vascular health.,, This hypothesis holds that there is a vicious cycle between neurometabolic blood pressure disorder, vascular injury of large vessels, small vessels, and microcirculation due to increased vascular pressures, and finally target organ injury (mainly brain, heart, kidney, and endothelium), which triggers major cardiovascular events, increased morbidity, mortality, and disability.,,
Precisely because of the above, Kario proposes the use of a diagnostic and severity score for 24-h blood pressure monitoring, with the aim of substantially protecting the endothelium. However, evidence suggests that more and more pathophysiological mechanisms are influencing cardiovascular health (specifically of the vessels), so new diagnostic and severity criteria need to be developed, including arterial kinetic parameters, arterial structure, arterial pressure, and inflammatory processes (such as the presence of inflammatory plaque and pro-inflammatory markers), to estimate actual vascular compromise, and determine whether there is a change in global cardiovascular risk stratification.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Desai N, Venkatesh CR, Koregol P. Arterial stiffness – A measurable vascular marker in clinical practice. APIK J Int Med 2021;9:146-52. [Full text]
Galati G, Germanova O, Iozzo RV, Buraschi S, Shchukin YV, Germanov A, et al.
Hemodynamic arterial changes in heart failure: A proposed new paradigm of “Heart and Vessels Failure (HVF)”. Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 Jun 8.
Buendía-Palacios DC, Hernández-Nieto B, Delgado-Marrugo RD, Barahona-Botache SA, Bolaño-Romero MP. Systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome: A conditioner of heart and vessels failure. Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 Aug 2.
Kario K. Systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome and resonance hypothesis of blood pressure variability: Triggering cardiovascular events. Korean Circ J 2016;46:456-67.
Kario K, Chirinos JA, Townsend RR, Weber MA, Scuteri A, Avolio A, et al.
Systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome (SHATS) – Coupling vascular disease and blood pressure variability: Proposed concept from pulse of Asia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2020;63:22-32.
Kario K. Systemic hemodynamic atherothrombotic syndrome (SHATS): Diagnosis and severity assessment score. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2019;21:1011-5.