APIK Journal of Internal Medicine

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 284--285

COVID-19 incidence and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination coverage rate: Observation


Sora Yasri1, Viroj Wiwanitkit2,  
1 KM Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. DY Patil Univerity, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sora Yasri
23 Bangkok 224, Bangkok 103300
Thailand




How to cite this article:
Yasri S, Wiwanitkit V. COVID-19 incidence and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination coverage rate: Observation.APIK J Int Med 2022;10:284-285


How to cite this URL:
Yasri S, Wiwanitkit V. COVID-19 incidence and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination coverage rate: Observation. APIK J Int Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 8 ];10:284-285
Available from: https://www.ajim.in/text.asp?2022/10/4/284/359443


Full Text



Dear Editor,

A fundamental primary preventative strategy is immunization. Currently, there are various vaccines available for the protection of various illnesses. Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) is one of the vaccines that is often used across the globe. BCG vaccination is required in countries where tuberculosis is endemic, such as Indochina. It is shown that BCG immunization reduces the risk of contracting tuberculosis.[1] However, it is intriguing to see how the BCG immunization affects other respiratory illnesses. The link between COVID-19 and the BCG vaccine is currently a fascinating topic in preventive medicine. According to certain findings, the COVID-19 pandemic disease's incidence and death could be decreased by receiving the BCG vaccine.[2],[3] The BCG vaccination's ability to protect against COVID-19, however, remains inconclusive.[2],[3] The BCG vaccination did not provide any protection against COVID-19, according to certain researchers, including a Swedish study.[4] On the other hand, The BCG group also showed fewer infectious illness symptoms, decreased severity, and fewer infectious disease occurrences per patient, including COVID-19, according to Faustman et al.'s research.[5] According to one theory, BCG is crucial in lowering COVID-19 incidence, severity, hospitalization, and death while boosting the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine's defenses.[6] The clinical real-world data can support the various clinical trials that are now available to support this concept.

The authors would want to present their observations from a country in Indochina, which is, after China, the region with the highest prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and the COVID-19 outbreak's early onset. The incidence of COVID-19 in various parts of the country and the related BCG coverage in each province were retrospectively examined by the authors using the available local data [Table 1]. There is no significant link, according to the correlation analysis. The authors also conducted a retrospective analysis of each setting's unique mortality incidence and corresponding BCG coverage rate. In addition, the correlation analysis reveals that there is no link with significance. This observation would suggest that there is no connection between the incidence or mortality of COVID-19 and the BCG immunization. Indeed, Kaur et al. pointed out that a growing body of evidence suggests that BCG or other microorganisms may increase immune responses in a way that is advantageous and may help guard against COVID-19. Clinical trials are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of BCG immunization against SARS-CoV-2 in elderly patients and healthcare professionals.[7]{Table 1}

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Tang J, Yam WC, Chen Z. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and vaccine development. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2016;98:30-41.
2Jirjees FJ, Dallal Bashi YH, Al-Obaidi HJ. COVID-19 death and BCG vaccination programs worldwide. Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2021;84:13-21.
3Maheshwari N, Jain A. Is there a rationale for using Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in coronavirus infection? Viral Immunol 2021;34:300-6.
4de Chaisemartin C, de Chaisemartin L. BCG vaccination in infancy does not protect against COVID-19. Evidence from a natural experiment in Sweden. Clin Infect Dis 2020:ciaa1223. [doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1223]. [Online ahead of print].
5Faustman DL, Lee A, Hostetter ER, Aristarkhova A, Ng NC, Shpilsky GF, et al. Multiple BCG vaccinations for the prevention of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in type 1 diabetes. Cell Rep Med 2022:100728. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100728. Online ahead of print.
6Wang J, Zhang Q, Wang H, Gong W. The potential roles of BCG vaccine in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022;27:157.
7Kaur G, Singh S, Nanda S, Zafar MA, Malik JA, Arshi MU, et al. Fiction and facts about BCG imparting trained immunity against COVID-19. Vaccines (Basel) 2022;10:1006.